Looking After Your Bones!

“The higher the peak bone mass we can get in young adulthood, the slower the loss of bone mass in late adulthood.”

It’s so important when you’re young, especially during your teens and early 20’s, to really look after your bones. Eat a balanced diet with enough foods rich in calcium and vitamin D, get enough exercise, don’t drink too much alcohol, and don’t smoke. It’s the age where you probably aren’t really thinking about all of these things!

Now that I’ve just turned 30, I’m a bit concerned that I didn’t invest in my bones enough. I wasn’t really a fan of milk, well, I didn’t eat too much dairy at all. I could’ve exercised more and consumed less alcohol. Despite studying for a nutrition degree, I was still just being a typical university student. I liked sunbathing though (still do, but a lot more careful these days) so I’m sure I got enough vitamin D and I’m just hoping I consumed other calcium rich foods. I suppose I ate plenty of broccoli, and tinned salmon with the bones, I remember picking them out until my Nan told me “Oooh you need to eat them, get your calcium!” – So I did. I’m still worried though.

So why am I concerned?

I’m concerned because peak bone mass is reached around the age of 30. When you’re younger, much more bone is deposited than withdrawn – increasing your bone mass. However, bone mass begins to decline around the age of 35 and you can only really then make healthy lifestyle choices or take medication to help maintain what you’ve got, not rebuild! The goal for bone health is basically to keep as much bone as possible for as long as you can. So it’s important to remember – the higher the peak bone mass we can get in young adulthood, the slower the loss of bone mass in late adulthood.

What are the complications?

Bone loss can result in a condition called osteoporosis, where bones lose their strength and are more likely to fracture; affecting over 3 million people in the UK. This can cause a lot of pain and severe disability, reducing quality of life. One in two women, and one in five men over the age of 50 experience fractures as a result of this!

So why is the risk higher in women?

Menopause! Fast bone loss occurs in the 10 years or so following the menopause because the level of oestrogen, a hormone that protects the bones, starts to decline. Although the decrease in bone mass then starts to slow down, it still continues throughout the post-menopausal years!

So what can you do about it?

Bad news is, a lot of it is out of your hands! We know that the older we get, the higher our risk and unfortunately, there are some other things that can’t be changed such as genetics! If it runs in the family, there’s a greater chance you will end up having the condition too. As I’ve just mentioned, gender plays a big role, with women being more at risk and then finally, your ethnicity. White and Asian women are more at risk whereas Black and Hispanic women have a lower risk of developing osteoporosis.

Balanced diet with sufficient calcium and vitamin d

However, there’s also a lot you can do before you reach peak bones mass density and then to prevent further bone loss and reduce risk of fractures later on. Throughout your life, eat a balanced diet rich in calcium (700mg per day) and vitamin D. It’s important. Don’t just start looking after your bones when there’s a problem, this needs to be done from an early age as it could have a significant benefit. Great sources of calcium are milk, cheese and other dairy foods. Plant based foods include green leafy vegetables like broccoli and cabbage (spinach doesn’t count as, although it contains calcium, it also contains oxalate which prevents calcium absorption!) soya products, nuts and fish where you eat the bones such as sardines.  As for vitamin D, oily fish, red meat, liver and egg yolk are good sources, and of course the sunshine – but be safe!  It’s also important to mention that conditions affecting bone mineral density such as Osteomalacia (age related decline in skins ability to synthesise vitamin D) and Rickets (poor absorption of calcium) are a result of vitamin D deficiency – ill cover vitamin D deficiency soon! Eat a variety of different foods as there’s plenty of other vitamins and minerals that contribute to your bone health.

It can be more difficult for vegans and vegetarians to get sufficient calcium and vitamin D in their diets as most sources are animal based and also more bio-available. It’s important to ensure you’re eating enough of the plant-based suggestions I mentioned earlier, and when buying plant-based milks and spreads etc check the labels and make sure they are fortified! Cutting dairy and meat out of your diet can mean you are missing out on important nutrients so do your research!

Physical activity

Move more. Anything is better than nothing. Take the stairs if you can, don’t sit down for more than 30 minutes – go for a stroll. Get a hobby – yoga, dancing, cycling. Join a running club. Even gardening and housework count.

Maintain a “healthy” weight

Try to maintain a “healthy” weight by eating a balanced diet, keeping active, getting enough sleep, managing stress etc etc. Although weight doesn’t equal health – when it comes to bone health, being underweight is linked to a higher risk of fractures and being overweight may be putting too much pressure on your bones and joints.

Limit the other stuff

Limit coffee, alcohol and salt intake and try and quit the cigs!

My Barcelona Highlights

A week back in England and as the song goes “all I wanna do is go back”.

Barcelona is now one of my favourite cities. The food, culture, weather, beautiful beaches and buildings – it was everything I’d hoped for and more.

Although I didn’t experience all of the “must do”, “must go” and “must see” places (great excuse to go back), let me share with you the key things I did get up to during my stay. 


Hotel Leonardo

Our accomodation was just off La Rambla – Hotel Leonardo. Ideal location, good value, clean, and all the facilities you could need for a weekend city break. There was a roof terrace with sun loungers to catch some rays and a roof top swimming pool if you fancy a quick dip to cool down (although I wouldn’t recommend diving and backflips due to its size and depth). We only used the roof terrace and pool once but it’s nice if you don’t like the beach or want a bit of a break from the bustling city. 


Brunch & Cake

Before I travel somewhere, I always check out the best brunch spots. I’m not the most organised person, but researching where to eat before visiting a new place is something I am good at. I’ve followed Brunch & Cake on Instagram for a while and have always admired the weird and wonderful brunch dishes. If you’re happy to try your waffles black and your iced lattes pink, then this is the place for you. With an extensive breakfast and lunch menu, Brunch & Cake caters for all dietary requirements and was definitely worth the 25 minute queue to get inside. 

Eggs benedict, avo toast & brownie pancakes

Bunker el Carmel

I’m so glad I was told about this special place as it’s an absolute must whilst you’re in Barcelona, and the best place to experience the incredible view of the city. We decided to go for sunset.

First bit of advice – it’s important to know where you’re going, how you’re getting there and how to get back. We decided to get taxis but found ourselves pretty stranded in run down residential areas, where the residents weren’t particularly helpful, to say the least! (It didn’t help that “tourists go home” was graffitied along the route to the bunkers – don’t let it put you off!)

Second bit of advice – take a picnic and some drinks in a backpack. Maybe a pack of cards? Whatever you enjoy doing, but don’t wait until you’re nearly there as there isn’t a supermarket at the top and it’s a bit of a trek!

You will know when you’ve arrived as you’ll see the amazing views, groups of people enjoying each other’s company and maybe some man singing and playing the guitar (just tell him he’s good if he asks). 


La Sagrada Familia

Did you know, La Sagrada Familia has been under construction for over a century? It’s taking that long that even Gaudí, the architect who was behind this incredible project (he’s also buried there), knew that he wouldn’t be around to admire his finished masterpiece. The construction is financed solely on donations from the public and visitors – which doesn’t really speed things along! Although we only admired this fabulous building from the outside (it was too hot and the queue was too long), it is definitely worth a visit and a few pics!


Arume 

After a couple of recommendations, we decided to eat here on our last night. I had the monkfish and it was up there with one of the tastiest dishes I’ve ever eaten. 

We did share a paella due to our own concerns that the portion might not satisfy our huge appetites – and I’m glad we did. It was also nice to try another dish whilst we were there. A little tip – the best restaurants tend to be off La Rambla, not along the main strip. These are tourist traps, pretty basic and overpriced. 

Monkfish & duck paella

Ziryab – Cocktail Shisha Lounge 

This was such a little gem that we stumbled across. It was our last night and we wanted somewhere chilled that served wine and shisha (holiday tradition). As we refused to wait 20 minutes at the previous place, and after a little help from google, we ended up at Ziryab. We discovered that it was a deaf friendly space, with the owner being deaf himself and most of the team that worked there. We used our body language and signs to communicate with the staff and it was so lovely to be welcomed into their space despite our limited signing ability. Each week they receive deaf visitors from all over the world and it would be great to spread the word so more people find out about this place. 


The Beach

Long, sandy beach that makes Barcelona what it is – a city with everything you could want. It gives that opportunity to have a bit of a chilled day, which isn’t always possible for a city break. It was very busy when we went and if you want an ice cold mojito, a blanket, pool party/club tickets, a massage or a parasol then you’ve gone to the right place! However, after the 100000 time of being asked, you will probably be close to telling the next man to stick his parasol where the sun doesn’t shine 🙂


Arts Hotel

We spotted this hotel terrace whilst walking towards the Marina. It looked like a nice little spot to catch the last few rays of the day, where we could enjoy a jug of sangria, or two (or three). Beautiful seating areas, amazing views and just an overall nice, chilled vibe. It was the perfect setting and exactly what we were after. Just bear in mind, we had been paying 8 euros for a jug of sangria at the little cafes along the way and this bill set us back 155 euros!!


Les Quinze Nitz

We had planned to eat at La Fonda for lunch, which is just off La Rambla, but as we arrived we realised there was no outdoor seating and we do love the whole al fresco dining whilst on holiday – especially for lunch! Although I have heard good things about La Fonda, and that it’s even a massive hit with locals (it was very busy), we decided to try another recommendation – Les Quinze Nitz. it was pure luck that we stumbled across it after spotting it in a very inviting square full of restaurants and bars (Plaza Real) – Les Quinze Nitz is the restaurant that happened to stand out. The Paella was good, the sangria was great and the houmous was actually amazing! 


W Hotel

Heels on and glass of wine in our hands, we spent Saturday night dancing away in the roof top bar/club – Eclipse. W Hotel is very different to the other buildings in Barcelona but, situated right on the seafront, it has become quite a landmark. We only had one “out out” night but I’ve been told that Jamboree is a must for a great night out too. 


I hope this helps when you plan your trip! It would also be great to hear about your experience and recommendations so comment below 🙂

Until next time Barcelona!

Why You Should be Getting More Fibre in Your Diet

Yesterday was World Digestive Health Day, so the perfect opportunity to talk Fibre (not that I need any excuse). It was recently described as the new superfood, and although i don’t particularly like that term, it is pretty super!

There are two types of fibre you should have in your diet, soluble fibre and insoluble fibre. Soluble fibre dissolves in the intestines and helps food move along the digestive tract. Insoluble fibre moves through the intestines without being absorbed, adding bulk to bowel movements, helping to reduce constipation.

The emerging research regarding fibre and its wide range of health benefits is fascinating. A huge study earlier this year confirmed its importance in the body, from reducing cholesterol, blood pressure and weight loss to reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes, colon cancer, heart disease and early death.

However, despite this, the majority of us only achieve around 18g of fibre a day – far off the 30g that’s recommended. We get fibre from unprocessed foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, and beans. Although most of our plates are lacking these foods, it is pretty easy to reach 30g with some simple changes to your diet.


Breakfast Ideas

Porridge

Oats are high in soluble fibre and porridge could provide you with around 10g if you choose the right toppings. I add half a banana and a handful of nuts to create a quick and tasty breakfast. You can also prepare the night before and leave in the fridge overnight – hence the name “overnight oats”.

Avocado & Egg on Toast

This breakfast provides 12g of fibre, so you’re already over a third of the way there! Opt for wholemeal bread when you can as it has more than double the amount of fibre compared to white bread.

Homemade Muesli

A high fibre breakfast that can provide around 10g of fibre if you add the right stuff! It’s easy to make in bulk ready for you to add milk or yoghurt in the morning when you wake up. Get creative by adding dried fruit such as apricots, mixed nuts, seeds and porridge oats.

Lunch Ideas

Jacket Potato and Baked Beans

This meal has about 10g of fibre so you can’t go wrong with jacket potato and baked beans for a high fibre lunch. Choose baked beans that are low in salt and sugar and if you do add cheese, try and stick to the 30g recommended portion of cheese to limit your saturated fat intake.

5 Bean Burrito

I love burritos and if you choose wholegrain varieties for the wrap and rice, along with veggies such as peppers and onions, you could be exceeding half your recommended intake of fibre in just one meal! Add the mixed beans and some fajita spice to create the perfect burrito. Grated cheese on top is optional and a side of homemade guac can add even more fibre!

Lentil Soup

Adding lentils or beans to any soup can really boost the fibre and red lentils can be used to make the soup a little thicker. Chuck a load of vegetables in as well for more fibre that will also contribute to your 5-a-day. Serve with wholemeal bread.

Dinner Ideas

Pasta Bolognese

I thought I’d throw in a pasta dish as they are just so easy, especially when you’re cooking for a few people or bulk cooking for the week ahead. Wholewheat pasta is always the best variety when looking to increase your fibre consumption. For the meat sauce, use half mince and half lentils. This adds more fibre to the dish and is also better for the planet.

Chickpea, Butternut Squash and Spinach Curry

Curries are a perfect way to experiment with cooking. This is one of my favourite combinations that provides over a third of your recommended fibre when served with wholegrain rice. I add garlic, ginger, coriander and cumin for flavour and tinned tomatoes and coconut milk for a nice creamy sauce.

Burger & Sweet Potato Wedges

Again, i’m keeping it simple and showing how easy it is to get more fibre in your diet by making small changes. Choose a wholemeal bun, keep the skin on your sweet potatoes and even have a side of homemade guac to really boost your fibre intake. If you opt for a bean or lentil burger, thats more fibre still – but if its shop bought, be sure to check salt content as vegan/vegetarian ready prepared food is quite often high in salt!


You should be getting your fibre from a range of different sources, so mix it up a bit by introducing more wholegrain cereals, beans & pulses, nuts & seeds, fruit & vegetables – variety is key!

If you’re new to the fibre bandwagon and have started to increase your consumption, its important to bear in mind that its something your gut needs to get used to. It’s therefore recommended that you increase fibre into your diet slowly and gradually to reduce excess gas and added pressure on your gut walls – which may result in pain and discomfort.

It could take weeks or months, but as fibre has so many functions and health benefits, that are based on legit evidence, bear with your gut and hopefully you’ll soon be reaching your 30g a day!

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Can you eat to beat hay fever?


Seasonal allergies can significantly affect your quality of life and although the most effective way to fight them off is to take your regular antihistamine, research has suggested that diet may also play a role by controlling underlying inflammation, dilating air passages, and providing other relieving effects.

Here’s a list of foods we should be eating more of….

OILY FISH

Oily fish such as salmon and trout are rich in omega-3 fatty acids which can reduce inflammation inside your body. This is said to be a critical factor in controlling allergies. It is recommended that you eat at least two portions of fish a week, with one of these being oily! Other sources of oily fish include: mackerel, herring and sardines.

FRUIT AND VEG

Fruit and vegetables have many benefits when it comes to your health and it is important to eat a variety! They are packed full of vitamins, minerals and fibre which support the immune system and may help fight off inflammation. It is recommended that adults consume 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day, however, most people aren’t getting enough. Fresh, frozen, canned, and dried options in cooked or raw forms all count, as do vegetable and fruit juices with no added sugar. Eat a rainbow and go for colourful fruit and vegetables such as blueberries, blackberries, kale, broccoli, apples, strawberries, spinach, pineapple, squash and avocado.

KEFIR

Kefir is a cultured, fermented milk drink that is rich in probiotic bacteria as well as protein and calcium. You can buy it ready made from supermarkets or try making your own with kefir grains that you can reuse over and over again! Evidence suggests that taking probiotics in food or as a supplement could improve the quality of life of hay fever sufferers, however this is still an emerging area of research and there isn’t currently enough strong evidence to recommend this as treatment.

NUTS

Other inflammatory fighting foods are nuts, such as walnuts, brazil nuts, almonds and cashews, thanks to them being packed with monounsaturated fat. A handful of unsalted nuts make a great snack or alternatively sprinkle them on your breakfast, curries or stir fries. Again, it is important to have a selection as they contain different vitamins and minerals which offer a variety of health benefits.

Is there anything we should be cutting back on…

Foods high in fat, salt and sugar, as well as alcohol and caffeine are said to make hay fever worse as they can increase histamine release or contribute to inflammation in the body. Although the evidence isn’t strong enough to support the link between these foods and seasonal allergies, it is recommended that they should be consumed in moderation within recommended limits.

With all this being said, it is always important to follow a healthy, balanced diet, throughout the year and not just during the spring and summer months! This is helpful for controlling multiple conditions, not just allergies. Your diet should consist of a variety of nutrient-dense foods from all food groups, whilst limiting foods high in saturated fat, sodium and sugar.

A List of Plant Based Protein Sources

UK recommendations suggest that the average adult is advised to eat 0.75g of protein for each kilogram they weigh. So on average, men should be eating 55g and women 45g per day. According to the National Diet and Nutrition Survey, the average person is eating more protein than they actually need. However, meat, fish, eggs and dairy products are often considered as your main sources and with the number of people following a plant based diet increasing, it is important to make sure you are still getting enough protein and to ensure they are good sources too!


Quinoa

A complete protein as it contains all 9 essential amino acids. Quinoa is also gluten-free, and high in fibre, iron and magnesium.

Beans & Lentils

Some have more than others but all are a great source of protein and used to replace meat in many vegan or vegetarian meals (such as my vegan spaghetti bolognese ☝🏽)

Wholemeal/Seeded Bread

You might not have thought your toast in the morning was contributing to your protein intake, but two slices of wholemeal bread has around 10g protein. Even more when topped with peanut butter!

Hummus

Made from chickpeas and can be a great snack with veggies or spread on a bagel. Green peas are also very underrated and can be a convenient addition to most dishes.

Greek Yoghurt

Great to add to your cooking for extra protein and to add a more creamy texture.

Soya, Tofu & Edamame

Another complete protein providing all your essential amino acids that you can only get from certain foods.

The Truth About Food Intolerance Tests

A lot of people have asked for my advice regarding food intolerance tests so I thought I’d put together a post.

The number of people who believe they have a food intolerance has risen dramatically over recent years. An intolerance is when your body has difficulty digesting certain foods resulting in bloating, diarrhoea, or stomach cramps etc. It’s hard to know how many people are truly affected as the cause of their symptoms might be down to something else. They are also being used as an excuse for weight gain (maybe you’re bloated because you ate too much?) 
The wellness industry has resulted in people turning to unqualified health bloggers and celebrities for their nutrition advice which is often anecdotal. People are now restricting their diets and claiming to have food intolerances because it’s now “trendy” to do so. Eliminating foods from our diet seems to be the main focus and the route to optimum health, rather than thinking about what we could be including to improve our overall diet? 
Food allergies on the other hand are more serious and avoiding specific foods is vital. They occur when the body’s immune system mistakes proteins found in specific food as a threat, which can cause life threatening anaphylaxis. Other symptoms include itching, rashes, swelling of the face (lips, tongue, around the eyes) and vomiting. Unlike a food allergy, a food intolerance is never life threatening and symptoms usually come on much slower.

Food Intolerance Tests

There are no tests for food intolerances. Thousands of people are being ripped off by clinics and practitioners charging for different tests such as IgG blood test, Kinesiology, Hair analysis, Leucocytotoxic test, Cytotoxic test, Pulse test and Electrodermal (Vega) test (or whatever else). These tests will come back with a long list of foods to avoid but, the truth is, the tests are useless as they have no scientific basis. Take the IgG blood test for example. Presence of the IgG antibody of a certain food could merely mean somebody was recently exposed to it, not that they are sensitive in anyway. 
Despite this, lack of education means people follow the advice given to them from their “diagnosis” as everyone is striving for that quick fix when it comes to health. This can result in cutting foods out of the diet unnecessarily, which could be dangerous. Nutrient deficiencies and disrupting the overall balance of the diet are potential risks, not to mention promoting disordered eating and creating anxiety around eating certain foods. Why would you want to stop eating loads of different foods if you don’t have to?

So what can you do?

If you suspect you have a food allergy then evidence based tests (blood tests or skin prick tests) that are performed by a registered health professional can be carried out. If you suspect you have a food intolerance then save your money for a start. Instead, try listening to your own body (which is unheard of these days, as it seems people would much rather listen to a random person on social media when it comes to knowing whats best for their own health). What you can do is keep a food diary to monitor your symptoms and the food you eat. Cut back on the suspected food for a while to see if symptoms improve and reintroduce it back into your diet to see if symptoms come back (good news is, you might be able to tolerate a certain amount of the food so no need to cut out completely).

Finally…

Remember to do some research around other conditions as well and seek expert advice from a Registered Professional such as a Dietitian, Nutritionist or your GP. Irritable bowel syndrome, coeliac disease and inflammatory bowel disease may be causing your symptoms and many digestive problems are actually a result of stress rather than diet.

Further Reading

https://www.bda.uk.com/foo…/food_allergy_intolerance_testing

E Numbers That Aren’t Suitable for Vegetarians or Vegans

Hi all! I’ve found it really difficult to find sources that contain RELIABLE information on ALL e numbers added to food. There’s so many additives that could possibly be derived from animals but a lot of the information I’ve found is very conflicting. With that in mind, I thought I’d put together a rough list on what I’ve collated so far. This is mainly to provide information for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet (to prevent hours of searching the internet) but I’m also open to any suggestions/amendments or to be signposted in the right direction (I’ve contacted Food Standards Agency but they don’t actually provide this information on all e numbers). I really want to put together something reliable where people can find accurate information on the additives in their food so please feel free to comment below.

e1000 – Cholic Acid (Emulsifier)Normal component of the bile of all vertebrates. Extracted from the bile of cows, but can also be produced synthetically.
e101 – Riboflavin The VRG conservatively classified niacin and riboflavin as “typically vegan” because of the possibility that these vitamins, widely found in animal products such as milk, organ meats and eggs, could be derived from animal sources in rare cases: https://www.vrg.org/blog/2012/01/19/riboflavin-vitamin-b-2-and-niacin-vitamin-b-3-typically-vegan/
e104 – Quinoline Yellow not derived from animal sources themselves but may involve the use of gelatine as a carrier.
e120 – Cochineal/Carmines/Carminic Acid/crimson lake/natural red 4 The pigment is produced by drying, crushing, and then boiling the bodies of cochineal beetles to extract carminic acid.
e1517 – Glyceryl diacetate (diacetin)commercially prepared from acetic acid and glycerol (e422)
e1518 – Glyceryl triacetate; triacetincommercially prepared from acetic acid and glycerol (e422)
e153 – Vegetable carboncan be obtained from various sources including activated charcoal, bones, meat, blood, various fats oils and resins or just the incomplete combustion of natural gas, it is normally derived from burnt vegetable matter.
e160d – Lycopenefound in tomatoes and other red fruits and vegetables, such as red carrots, watermelons, gac, and papayas. gelatne carrier?
e160e – Beta-apo-8′-carotenal (C30)An orange to red colour, normally synthetic when used as a food colour, although it occurs naturally in oranges and tangerines. Gelatine Carrier?
e161g – Canthaxanthincommercially prepared from mushrooms/flamingo feathers, mainly produced synthetically from carotene.
e161j – AstaxathinThe primary natural sources for industrial production of astaxanthin comprise the following:

Euphausia pacifica (Pacific krill)
Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill)
Haematococcus pluvialis (algae)
Pandalus borealis (Arctic shrimp)
Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, formerly Phaffia rhodozyma (yeast)
e170 – Calcium carbonateA natural colour found as chalk, limestone, marble, dolomite, eggshells, and the shells of many marine animals.
e234 – NisinPreservative – Nisin is a natural antimicrobial agent, derived from controlled fermentation of the naturally occurring bacteria Streptococcus lactis, found in milk.
e252 – Potassium nitrateMay be derived from waste animal or vegetable matter.
e270 – Lactic acidall fermented products (dairy and non-dairy) contain this as a result of bacterial fermentation. Commercially produced by bacterial fermentation on starch and molasses. https://www.vegsoc.org/sslpage.aspx?pid=728 Typically derived from plants such as beets. When animal-derived, found in blood and muscle tissue. Also in sour milk, beer, sauerkraut, pickles, and other food products made by bacterial fermentation. Used in skin fresheners, as a preservative, in the formation of plasticizers, etc. Alternatives: plant milk sugars, synthetics. https://www.peta.org/living/food/animal-ingredients-list/
e1105 – Lysozymefrom chicken eggs
e304 – Ascorbyl palmitatepossibility that the palmitic acid used is obtained from animal fat, although the main source is vegetable fat. http://www.food-info.net/uk/e/e304.htm
e322 – LecithinsLecithin, commercially isolated (mainly) from soybeans or egg yolk (may be made from caged hens). https://www.vegsoc.org/sslpage.aspx?pid=728
e325 – Sodium lactatesodium salts of lactic acid (e270)
e326 – Potassium lactatepotassium salts of lactic acid (e270)
e327 – Calcium lactatecalcium salts of lactic acid (e270)
e328 – ammonium lactateammonium salts of lactic acid (e270)
e329 – magnesium lactatemagnesium salts of lactic acid (e270)
e341 – Calcium phosphates(Monobasic, Dibasic and Tribasic) a mineral salt found in rocks and bones. Used as an anti-caking agent in cosmetics and food, mineral supplement, abrasive in toothpaste and jelling agent. Also known as calcium rock. http://www.veganpeace.com/ingredients/ingredients.htm
e422 – Glycerolcan be extracted from plant or animal fats : https://www.veganfirst.com/article/qa-is-glycerin-vegan
e430 – Polyoxyethylene (8) stearatecontain fatty acids, which are nearly always from vegetable oils; however, use of animal fat (including pork) cannot be fully ruled out. http://www.food-info.net/uk/e/e430.htm,
e431 – Polyoxyethylene (40) stearatecontain fatty acids which are mostly obtained from vegetable oils, however, there is the possibility that animal fats may be used. https://www.vegsoc.org/sslpage.aspx?pid=728
e432 – Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate; Polysorbate
20
contain fatty acids which are mostly obtained from vegetable oils, however, there is the possibility that animal fats may be used. https://www.vegsoc.org/sslpage.aspx?pid=729
e433 – Polyoxyethylene sorbitan mono-oleate; Polysorbate
80
contain fatty acids which are mostly obtained from vegetable oils, however, there is the possibility that animal fats may be used. https://www.vegsoc.org/sslpage.aspx?pid=730
e434 – Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate;
Polysorbate 40
contain fatty acids which are mostly obtained from vegetable oils, however, there is the possibility that animal fats may be used. https://www.vegsoc.org/sslpage.aspx?pid=731
e435 – Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate;
Polysorbate 60
contain fatty acids which are mostly obtained from vegetable oils, however, there is the possibility that animal fats may be used. https://www.vegsoc.org/sslpage.aspx?pid=732
e436 – Polyoxyethylene sorbitan tristearate; Polysorbate 65contain fatty acids which are mostly obtained from vegetable oils, however, there is the possibility that animal fats may be used. https://www.vegsoc.org/sslpage.aspx?pid=733
e441 – gelatineObtained from animal by-products, such as bones and hides. It can be produced from all species of animals.
e442 – Ammonium phosphatidesE442 is generally produced with rapeseed oil and can thus be consumed by all religious groups. However, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be completed excluded. http://www.food-info.net/uk/e/e442.htm, https://www.quora.com/Is-E442-and-E476-halal, https://noshly.com/additive/e442/emulsifier/442/#.XG0wmZP7TOQ
e469 – Enzymatically hydrolysed carboxy methyl cellulosecant find enough info so leaving.
e470a – Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acidsSalts of fatty acids that may be of animal origin, https://simplifyvegan.com.au/additives/?cat=Emulsifier%2FStabilisers
e470b – Magnesium salts of fatty acidsSalts of fatty acids that may be of animal origin, https://simplifyvegan.com.au/additives/?cat=Emulsifier%2FStabilisers
e471 – Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsproduced from glycerol and natural fatty acids, derived mainly from plant origin, but animal fats may be used. https://www.vegsoc.org/sslpage.aspx?pid=733
e472 – related to the mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsproduced from glycerol, natural fatty acids and another organic acid (acetic, lactic, tartaric, citric). The fats are obtained mainly from plant origin, but animal fats may be used. https://www.vegsoc.org/sslpage.aspx?pid=733
e472a – Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty
acids
produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids and another organic acid (acetic, lactic, tartaric, citric). The fats are obtained mainly from plant origin, but animal fats may be used. https://www.vegsoc.org/sslpage.aspx?pid=734
e472b – Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty
acids
produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids and another organic acid (acetic, lactic, tartaric, citric). The fats are obtained mainly from plant origin, but animal fats may be used. https://www.vegsoc.org/sslpage.aspx?pid=735
e472c – Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty
acids
produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids and another organic acid (acetic, lactic, tartaric, citric). The fats are obtained mainly from plant origin, but animal fats may be used. https://www.vegsoc.org/sslpage.aspx?pid=736
e472d – Tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides
of fatty acids
produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids and another organic acid (acetic, lactic, tartaric, citric). The fats are obtained mainly from plant origin, but animal fats may be used. https://www.vegsoc.org/sslpage.aspx?pid=737
e472e – Mono- and diacetyltartaric acid esters of monoand diglycerides of fatty acidsproduced from glycerol, natural fatty acids and another organic acid (acetic, lactic, tartaric, citric). The fats are obtained mainly from plant origin, but animal fats may be used. https://www.vegsoc.org/sslpage.aspx?pid=738
e472f – Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of monoand diglycerides of fatty acidsproduced from glycerol, natural fatty acids and another organic acid (acetic, lactic, tartaric, citric). The fats are obtained mainly from plant origin, but animal fats may be used. https://www.vegsoc.org/sslpage.aspx?pid=739
e473 – Sucrose esters of fatty acidsproduced from glycerol and natural fatty acids. The fats are obtained mainly from plant origin, but animal fats may be used. https://www.vegsoc.org/sslpage.aspx?pid=739
e474 – Sucroglyceridesesters of sugar and fats, produced from sugar and natural fats. The fats are obtained mainly from plant origin, but animal fats may be used. https://www.vegsoc.org/sslpage.aspx?pid=739
e475 – Polyglycerol esters of fatty acidsa combination of polyglycerol and natural fats. Normal fat consists of glycerol and fatty acids, for these products additional glycerol is coupled to the normal glycerol. Combination of polyglycerol and natural fats. The fats are obtained mainly from plant origin, but animal fats may be used.
e477 – Propane-1,2-diol esters of fatty acidsCombination of propanediol and fat which may be of animal origin https://simplifyvegan.com.au/additives/?cat=Emulsifier%2FStabilisers; http://www.food-info.net/uk/e/e477.htm
e478 – Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycolFrom fats that may be of animal origin. https://simplifyvegan.com.au/additives/?cat=Emulsifier%2FStabilisers
e479 – Esterified Soy Oilproduced by heating soy-oil in the presence of free fatty acids. The fatty acids are mainly from plant origin, but fats of animal origin may be used. https://www.vegsoc.org/Enumbers
e479b – Thermally oxidised soya bean oil interacted with
mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
Esterified Soy Oil, produced by heating soy-oil in the presence of free fatty acids. The fatty acids are mainly from plant origin, but fats of animal origin may be used. https://www.vegsoc.org/Enumbers
e481 – Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylateombination of stearic acid and lactic acid, resulting in a mixture of several components. Stearic acid can be derived from both plant and animal fats. https://www.vegsoc.org/Enumbers
e482 – Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylatecombination of calcium, stearic acid and lactic acid, resulting in a mixture of several components. The origin of stearic acid can be either plant or animal fat. https://www.vegsoc.org/Enumbers
e483 – Stearyl tartratecombination of stearic acid and tartaric acid, the origin of stearic acid can be from plant or animal fats. https://www.vegsoc.org/Enumbers
e484 – stearyl citratecombination of stearic acid and citric acid, the origin of stearic acid can be from plant or animal fats. https://www.vegsoc.org/Enumbers
e491 – Sorbitan monostearateproduced from sorbitol and varying acids, these are normal fatty acids derived from vegetable or animal origin. https://www.vegsoc.org/Enumbers
e492 – Sorbitan tristearateproduced from sorbitol and varying acids, these are normal fatty acids derived from vegetable or animal origin. https://www.vegsoc.org/Enumbers
e493 – Sorbitan tristearateproduced from sorbitol and varying acids, these are normal fatty acids derived from vegetable or animal origin. https://www.vegsoc.org/Enumbers
e494 – Sorbitan monooleateproduced from sorbitol and varying acids, these are normal fatty acids derived from vegetable or animal origin. https://www.vegsoc.org/Enumbers
e495 – Sorbitan monopalmitateproduced from sorbitol and varying acids, these are normal fatty acids derived from vegetable or animal origin. https://www.vegsoc.org/Enumbers
e542 – Edible Bone Phosphatefrom animal bones. https://www.vegsoc.org/Enumbers
e570 – stearic acid stearic acid and stearates are commercially obtained from plant sources, the use of animal fat (including pork and beef) can not be excluded.
e572 – Magnesium stearatestearic acid and stearates are commercially obtained from plant sources, the use of animal fat (including pork and beef) can not be excluded.
e573 – Aluminium stearatestearic acid and stearates are commercially obtained from plant sources, the use of animal fat (including pork and beef) can not be excluded.
e585 – Ferrous lactatederived from the direct action of lactic acid on iron fillings or from the interaction of calcium lactate with ferrous sulfate. – http://www.veganpeace.com/ingredients/ingredients.htm
e626 – Guanylic acidGuanylates are generally produced from meat, but partly also from fish. They are thus not suitable for vegans and vegetarians, and in most cases not suitable for Jews, Muslims and Hindus, depending on the origin of the product. http://www.food-info.net/uk/e/e635.htm
e627 – Disodium guanylateGuanylates are generally produced from meat, but partly also from fish. They are thus not suitable for vegans and vegetarians, and in most cases not suitable for Jews, Muslims and Hindus, depending on the origin of the product. http://www.food-info.net/uk/e/e635.htm
e628 – Dipotassium guanylateGuanylates are generally produced from meat, but partly also from fish. They are thus not suitable for vegans and vegetarians, and in most cases not suitable for Jews, Muslims and Hindus, depending on the origin of the product. http://www.food-info.net/uk/e/e635.htm
e629 – Calcium guanylateGuanylates are generally produced from meat, but partly also from fish. They are thus not suitable for vegans and vegetarians, and in most cases not suitable for Jews, Muslims and Hindus, depending on the origin of the product. http://www.food-info.net/uk/e/e635.htm
e630 lnosinic acidInosinates are generally produced from meat, but partly also from fish. They are thus not suitable for vegans and vegetarians, and in most cases not suitable for Jews, Muslims and Hindus, depending on the origin of the product. http://www.food-info.net/uk/e/e635.htm
e631 – Disodium inosinateSodium salt of inosinic acid, a natural acid mainly present in animals. It is commercially prepared from meat/fish but may also be produced by bacterial fermentation of sugars. https://www.vegsoc.org/Enumbers
e632 – Dipotassium inosinatePotassium salt of inosinic acid (E630), a natural acid, that is mainly present in animals. Commercially prepared from meat or fish (sardines). May also be produced by bacterial fermentation of sugars. http://www.food-info.net/uk/e/e632.htm
e633 – Calcium inosinateCalcium salt of inosinic acid (E630), a natural acid, that is mainly present in animals. Commercially prepared from meat or fish (sardines). May also be produced by bacterial fermentation of sugars. http://www.food-info.net/uk/e/e633.htm
e634 – Calcium 5′-ribonucleotidesMixture of calcium salts of guanylic (E626) and inosinic acid (E630). http://www.food-info.net/uk/e/e634.htm
e635 – Disodium 5′-ribonucleotidesMixture of sodium salts of guanylic (E626) and inosinic acid (E630). http://www.food-info.net/uk/e/e635.htm
e636 – maltolMaltol is generally produced from bark or malt. Sometimes lactose (from cow’s milk) is used. It should thus be avoided by vegans. It does not contain lactose and can be used by lactose-intolerant people. http://www.food-info.net/uk/e/e637.htm
e637 – ethylmaltolEthylmaltol is generally produced from bark or malt. Sometimes lactose (from cow’s milk) is used. It should thus be avoided by vegans. It does not contain lactose and can be used by lactose-intolerant people. http://www.food-info.net/uk/e/e637.htm
e640 – Glycine originally isolated from gelatine but can be prepared synthetically. https://www.vegsoc.org/Enumbers
e901 – Beeswax, white and yellowmade by bees but does not contain insects https://www.vegsoc.org/Enumbers
e904 – Shellacnatural polymer derived from lac beetles https://www.vegsoc.org/Enumbers
e910 – L-cysteinederived from hair, both human and animal, or feathers. (still vegetarian but not vegan) . https://www.vrg.org/blog/2018/05/04/update-on-vegan-l-cysteine-what-does-vegetable-l-cysteine-mean/
e913 – Lanolina wax from sheep excreted by the skin of sheep and extracted from the wool https://www.vegsoc.org/Enumbers
e920 – L-cysteine hydrochloridederived from hair, both human and animal, or feathers. (still vegetarian but not vegan) . https://www.vrg.org/blog/2018/05/04/update-on-vegan-l-cysteine-what-does-vegetable-l-cysteine-mean/
e921 – L-cysteine hydrochloride monohydratederived from hair, both human and animal, or feathers. (still vegetarian but not vegan) . https://www.vrg.org/blog/2018/05/04/update-on-vegan-l-cysteine-what-does-vegetable-l-cysteine-mean/
e966 – Lactitolmade from milk sugar https://www.vegsoc.org/Enumbers
e415 – Xanthan Gumproduced by the fermentation of corn sugar. Often vegan, but can be purified by using chicken lysozyme or derived from the fermentation https://simplifyvegan.com.au/market/xanthan-gum-e415/ https://www.veganeasy.org/food/food-additives/
e129 – FD&C Red 40, Allura Red ACDerived from either coal tar or petroleum. It is not derived from insects. Red 40 does not contain any animal derivatives, https://veganfoodlover.com/red-40-vegan/
e102 – FD&C Yellow 5, Tartrazine, Acid Yellow 23, Food Yellow 4, and trisodium 1–4–5-pyrazolone-3-carboxylate.Synthetic azo dye, primarily used as a food coloring. Derived from coal tar. http://www.food-info.net/uk/e/e102.htm
e132 – FD&C Blue 2, Indogotine, Indigo carmine A synthetic dye derived from coal tar.
e133 – FD&C Blue 1, Brilliant Blue FCFA synthetic dye derived from coal tar.
e110 – FD&C Yellow 6, Monoazo, Sunset Yellow FCF, Orange Yellow S, FD&C Yellow 6, Monoazo Derived from coal tar,A synthetic dye derived from coal tar.
e476 – Polyglycerol polyricinoleateFrom polyglycerol and castor oil (tree origins) . can be of animal origin. https://simplifyvegan.com.au/additives/?cat=Emulsifier%2FStabilisers; http://www.food-info.net/uk/e/e476.htm